The Dome of the Rock is the octagonal building that is hard to miss in the Old City skyline. The Dome of the Rock is a shrine for what Islam claims since the thirties is Islam's third holiest site. The shrine is built over what Jewish people believe to be the holiest place in the world and the place that G-d started his creation of the world from, as well as the place where Abraham tried to sacrifice his beloved son Isaac.
The building was constructed between 688 and 691 so as to spite the Christians and Jews- by building on the holiest site in Judaism- the Temple Mount, by ensuring that the building had a larger dome than that of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and by forcing Syrian Christians to lay mosaics inside that contained verses from the Quran about the misguided Christian belief in the trinity.
Perhaps it is understandable then, on the basis of the aforementioned, that although tourists can visit the Temple Mount compound, only Moslems can go up to the Dome of the Rock.